Dyskusja:Saneczkarstwo (tory naturalne)

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• 1 Natural Luge • 2 History • 3 Technology, equipment and driving technique • 4 Tracks • 5 Organisation • 6 Variants • 7 Natural Luge as an Olympic discipline • 8 External links • 9 References


1. Natural Luge Natural tracks are adapted from existing mountain roads and paths. Artificially banked curves are not permitted. The track’s surface should be horizontal. They are naturally iced. Tracks can get rough from the braking and steering action. Athletes use a steering rein and drag their hands and use their legs in order to drive around the tight flat corners. Braking is often required in front of curves and is accomplished by the use of spikes built on the bottom of the shoes. Most of the tracks are situated in Austria and Italy, with others in Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Canada, Switzerland, Croatia, Liechtenstein, Turkey, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Bulgaria, Romania, New Zealand and the United States. Sled’s can now be adapted to take wheels which does not restrict the sport to alpine countries.

Patrick Pigneter ITA in action on Ice and Natural Luge with wheels in England

2. History Until the beginning of the 20th century toboggan races were run exclusively on snowy forest trails that exhibited partially one or two meter high snow walls at the curve outer sides. In 1910 was the beginning to specifically for sledding/tobogganing/natural Luge to create paths and to freeze the bank the curves, to make it more navigable and with that the first synthetic or artificial tracks had emerged. Because few such paths were available, the early toboggans’t mostly continue on forest roads without the banked curves. The natural tracks are recognized for their flat track base characteristics. (no banked curves) [1] Until the 1960s there was still no formal separation between artificial and natural luge and the athletes were not specializing. For both types of tracks the same toboggans were used and the competition rules were not different. [2] Due to the small number of tracks most competitions were held on natural tracks, only in the 1950s were tracks on the increase. After the Olympic debut of 1964, the sports of artificial and natural tracks in luge stood up as separate disciplines but remain under the one federation. At this time World and European Championships were subsequently assessed as artificial track competitions, regardless of whether they were actually held on the artificial or, as most often the case, on natural track. [2] In 1966 the International Luge Federation (FIL) the governing body for the sport of Luge was established. For the Alpine countries natural luge competitions were conducted and proved very popular. In 1967 there was the European Cup, 1970, resulted in Kapfenberg the first European championships through and 1979, the first World Cup was held in Inzing. Since 1992 there has been a World Cup, which is held over six championship rounds per season as in the international championships in single-seat sleds for men and women as well as in a two-seater (Double). Besides that there is the Intercontinental Cup, which is mainly to promote young talent. [3] In European and World Championships, a team competition, each with a single- competition for women and men and a double is executed. Junior European Championships was established since 1974 and a Junior World Championships since 1997. It has a rhythm developed, which events will be held in the odd years; World Championships and Junior European Championships and in even years the European Championship and the Junior World Championships. Since the 2014/15 season, there is a substitute for the Intercontinental (IC Cup) the Junior World Cup (JWC) with 4 races, which are counted in the classes juniors I and juniors II. The International Luge Federation has campaigned since the 1970’s to have the natural discipline recognition as an Olympic discipline; but so far all attempts failed to get the sport of Natural Luge in the program of the Olympic Games. [4] Jump to: navigation, search • The FIL World Luge Natural Track Championships, part of the International Luge Federation (FIL) have taken place on an almost annual basis in non-Winter Olympics years since 1979. These championships are shown for natural tracks. See FIL World Luge Championships for all artificial track events that have taken place since 1955. • Host cities[edit] • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 1979: Inzing, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 1980: Moos in Passeier, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 1982: Feld am See, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Germany 1984: Kreuth, West Germany • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 1986: Fénis-Aosta, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland 1988: Montreux, Switzerland (cancelled) • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 1990: Gsies, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 1992: Bad Goisern, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 1994: Gsies, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 1996: Oberperfuss, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finland 1998: Rautavaara, Finland • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 2000: Olang, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 2001: Stein an der Enns, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovenia 2003: Železniki, Slovenia • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 2005: Latsch, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada 2007: Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 2009: Moos in Passeier, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria 2011: Umhausen, Austria • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy 2013: Deutschnofen, Italy • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia 2015: Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Russia

Men’s singles[edit] Debuted: 1979. Games Gold Silver Bronze 1979 Inzing Werner Prantl (AUT) Damiano Lugon (ITA) Erich Graber (ITA)

1980 Passeier Erich Graber (ITA) Damiano Lugon (ITA) Otto Bachman (ITA)

1982 Feld am See Gerhard Pircher (AUT) Otto Bachman (ITA) Werner Prantl (AUT)

1984 Kreuth Alfred Kogler (AUT) Giuseppe Cerise (ITA) Willi Danklmaier (AUT)

1986 Fénis-Aosta Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Damiano Lugon (ITA) Harald Steinhauser (ITA)

1990 Gsies Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Corrado Herin (ITA) Harald Steinhauser (ITA)

1992 Bad Goisern Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Willi Danklmaier (AUT) Franz Obrist (ITA)

1994 Gsies Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Franz Obrist (ITA) Erhard Mahlknecht (ITA)

1996 Oberperfuss Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Anton Blasbichler (ITA) Franz Obrist (ITA)

1998 Rautavaara Reinhard Gruber (ITA) Martin Gruber (ITA) Anton Blasbichler (ITA)

2000 Olang-Valdaora Gerald Kallan (AUT) Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Anton Blasbichler (ITA)

2001 Stein an der Enns Anton Blasbichler (ITA) Ferdinand Hirzegger (AUT) Gerhard Pilz (AUT)

2003 Železniki Robert Batkowski (AUT) Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Gerald Kallan (AUT)

2005 Latsch Anton Blasbichler (ITA) Andreas Castiglioni (ITA) Patrick Pigneter (ITA)

2007 Grande Prairie Gernot Schwab (AUT) Gerhard Pilz (AUT) Patrick Pigneter (ITA)

2009 Moos Patrick Pigneter (ITA) Thomas Kammerlander (AUT) Thomas Schopf (AUT)

2011 Umhausen Gerald Kammerlander (AUT) Robert Batkowski (AUT) Patrick Pigneter (ITA)

2013 Deutschnofen Patrick Pigneter (ITA) Thomas Schopf (AUT) Alex Gruber (ITA)


Women’s singles[edit] Debuted: 1979. Games Gold Silver Bronze 1979 Inzing Delia Vaudan (ITA) Ingrid Zameter (ITA) Roswitha Fischer (ITA)

1980 Passeier Delia Vaudan (ITA) Christa Fontana (ITA) Roswitha Fischer (ITA)

1982 Feld am See Herta Hafner (ITA) Hilde Fuchs (AUT) Paula Peintner (ITA)

1984 Kreuth Delia Vaudan (ITA) Paula Peintner (ITA) Irmgard Lanthaler (ITA)

1986 Fénis-Aosta Irmgard Lanthaler (ITA) Delia Vaudan (ITA) Helga Pichler (ITA)

1990 Gsies Jeanette Koppensteiner (AUT) Irene Koch (AUT) Lyubov Panyutina (URS)

1992 Bad Goisern Lyubov Panyutina (CIS) Elvira Holzknecht (AUT) Irene Koch (AUT)

1994 Gsies Beatrix Mahlknecht (ITA) Irene Zechner (AUT) Doris Haselrieder (ITA)

1996 Oberperfuss Irene Zechner (AUT) Elvira Holzknecht (AUT) Sandra Mariner (AUT)

1998 Rautavaara Lyubov Panyutina (RUS) Christa Gietl (ITA) Sonja Steinacher (ITA)

2000 Olang-Valdaora Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Sonja Steinacher (ITA) Elvira Holzknecht (AUT)

2001 Stein an der Enns Sonja Steinacher (ITA) Renate Gietl (ITA) Sandra Mariner (AUT)

2003 Železniki Sonja Steinacher (ITA) Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Irene Mitterstieler (ITA)

2005 Latsch Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Barbara Abart (ITA) Renate Gietl (ITA)

2007 Grande Prairie Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Yuliya Vetlova (RUS) Melanie Batkowski (AUT)

2009 Moos Renate Gietl (ITA) Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Renate Kasslatter (ITA)

2011 Umhausen Renate Gietl (ITA) Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Melanie Schwarz (ITA)

2013 Deutschnofen Yekaterina Lavrentyeva (RUS) Melanie Schwarz (ITA) Evelin Lanthaler (ITA)


Men’s doubles[edit] Debuted: 1979. Games Gold Silver Bronze 1979 Inzing Damiano Lugon Andrea Millet Italy Werner Mücke Helmut Huter Austria Werner Prantl Florian Prantl Austria

1980 Passeier Oswald Pornbacher Raimund Pigneter Italy Martin Jud Harald Steinhauser Italy Werner Mücke Helmut Huter Austria

1982 Feld am See Andreas Jud Ernst Oberhammer Italy Alfred Kogler Franz Huber Austria Werner Prantl Florian Prantl Austria

1984 Kreuth Andreas Jud Ernst Oberhammer Italy Martin Jud Harald Steinhauser Italy Alfred Kogler Franz Huber Austria

1986 Fénis-Aosta Almir Bentemps Corrado Herin Italy Andreas Jud Ernst Oberhammer Italy Arnold Lunger Gunther Steinhauser Italy

1990 Gsies Andreas Jud Hannes Pichler Italy Almir Bentemps Corrado Herin Italy Walter Mauracher Georg Eberhardter Austria

1992 Bad Goisern Almir Bentemps Corrado Herin Italy Roland Wolf Stefan Kögler Austria Michael Bischofer Herbert Kögl Austria

1994 Gsies Manfred Graber Gunther Steinhauser Italy Jurgen Pezzi Christian Hafner Italy Roland Niedermair Hubert Burger Italy

1996 Oberperfuss Reinhard Beer Herbert Kögl Austria Andi Ruetz Helmut Ruetz Austria Martin Psenner Arthur Konig Italy

1998 Rautavaara Andi Ruetz Helmut Ruetz Austria Manfred Graber Hubert Burger Italy Reinhard Beer Herbert Kögl Austria

2000 Olang-Valdaora Armin Mair David Mair Italy Reinhard Beer Herbert Kögl Austria Andrzej Laszczak Damian Waniczek Poland

2001 Stein an der Enns Wolfgang Schopf Andreas Schopf Austria Armin Mair David Mair Italy Peter Lechner Peter Braunegger Austria

2003 Železniki Wolfgang Schopf Andreas Schopf Austria Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Harald Kleinhofer Gerhard Mühlbacher Austria

2005 Latsch Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Armin Mair Johannes Hofer Italy Andrzej Laszczak Damian Waniczek Poland

2007 Grande Prairie Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Aleksandr Yegorov Pyotr Popov Russia Christian Schatz Gerhard Mühlbacher Austria

2009 Moos Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Christian Schopf Andreas Schopf Austria Andrzej Laszczak Damian Waniczek Poland

2011 Umhausen Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Andrzej Laszczak Damian Waniczek Poland

2013 Deutschnofen Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Christian Schopf Andreas Schopf Austria Thomas Schopf Andreas Schöpf Austria


Mixed team[edit] Debuted: 2001. Games Gold Silver Bronze 2001 Stein an der Enns Sonja Steinacher Anton Blasbichler Armin Mair David Mair Italy Marlies Wagner Gerhard Pilz Peter Lechner Peter Braunegger Austria Renate Gietl Martin Gruber Thomas Graf Michael Graf Italy

2005 Latsch Melanie Batkowski Robert Batkowski Reinhard Beer Herbert Kögl Austria Yekaterina Lavrentyeva Aleksey Lebedev Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Renate Gietl Anton Blasbichler Armin Mair Johannes Hofer Italy

2007 Grande Prairie Melanie Batkowski Gernot Schwab Christian Schatz Gerhard Mühlbacher Austria Renate Gietl Patrick Pigneter Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Marlies Wagner Gerald Kammerlander Reinhard Beer Herbert Kögl Austria

2009 Moos Renate Gietl Anton Blasbichler Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Melanie Batkowski Thomas Schopf Christian Schopf Andreas Schopf Austria Yekaterina Lavrentyeva Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia

2011 Umhausen Anton Blasbichler Renate Gietl Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Gerald Kammerlander Melanie Batkowski Christian Schatz Gerhard Mühlbacher Austria Juri Talykh Yekaterina Lavrentyeva Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia

2013 Deutschnofen Alex Gluber Melanie Schwarz Patrick Pigneter Florian Clara Italy Stanislav Kovshik Yekaterina Lavrentyeva Pavel Porzhnev Ivan Lazarev Russia Florian Breitenberger Evelin Lanthaler Hannes Clara Stefan Gruber Italy


Medal table[edit] Updated as of the 2011 FIL World Luge Natural Track Championships. Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total 1 Italy 29 28 28 85 2 Austria 19 21 21 61 3 Russia (Since 1994) 7 7 2 16 4 Poland 0 0 4 4 5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Commonwealth of Independent States (1992 only) 1 0 0 1 6 Soviet Union (1979-90) 0 0 1 1 • Natural Luge Rules and basic format as directed by the FIL http://www.fil-luge.org/en/rules/rules-natural-track

Championships • World Championships (WM) run in odd numbered years • World Junior Championships (WJM) run in even numbered years • Continental Championships for Men/Women run in even numbered years • Ausnahme: Nordamerikanische Meisterschaften: annually • Continental Junior Championships in odd numbered years

• Disciplines. Championships and competitions are staged in the following events: • Women‘s singles • Men‘s - singles • Doubles • Team Competition • Eligibility • WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: • Women Singles: 4+1 Men Singels: 6+1 Doubles: 3+1

• CONTINENTAL CHAMPIONSHIPS*: • Women Singles: 4+1 Men Singels: 6+1 Doubles: 3+1

• CONTINENTAL JUNIOR CHAMPIONSHIPS: • Women Singles: 4 Men Singles: 6 Doubles: 3

• WORLD CUPS: • Women Singles: 3 Men Singles: 4 Doubles: 2

  • Exception: In case of North American Championships the number of participants

is not restricted.

• For championships and international competitions of the FIL athletes must have reached the minimum age (year of the event minus 15). • Competition Runs • WM / WJM: • Singles: 3 Doubles: 2

• CONTINENTAL CHAMPIONSHIPS: • Singles: 2 Doubles: 2

• INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIONS: • Singles: 2 Doubles: 2

Ranking • For the results achieved in a World Cup competition, the following points per competition are awarded:

• Women / Men / Doubles: • 1st Place: 100 Points 22nd Place: 19 Points • 2nd Place: 85 Points 23rd Place: 18 Points • 3rd Place: 70 Points 24th Place: 17 Points • 4th Place: 60 Points 25th Place: 16 Points • 5th Place: 55 Points 26th Place: 15 Points • 6th Place: 50 Points 27th Place: 14 Points • 7th Place: 46 Points 28th Place: 13 Points • 8th Place: 42 Points 29th Place: 12 Points • 9th Place: 39 Points 30th Place: 11 Points • 10th Place: 36 Points 31st Place: 10 Points • 11th Place: 34 Points 32nd Place: 9 Points • 12th Place: 32 Points 33rd Place: 8 Points • 13th Place: 30 Points 34th Place: 7 Points • 14th Place: 28 Points 35th Place: 6 Points • 15th Place: 26 Points 36th Place: 5 Points • 16th Place: 25 Points 37th Place: 4 Points • 17th Place: 24 Points 38th Place: 3 Points • 18th Place: 23 Points 39th Place: 2 Points • 19th Place: 22 Points 40th Place: 1 Points • 20th Place: 21 Points 41st Place: 1 Points • 21th Place: 20 Points All others: with 1 point each

3. Technology, equipment and driving technique A natural track sled consists of two undivided seat brackets and a front and rear bridge constructed from steel, a plastic seat mat is laced to the brackets. You then have two wooden kuffens that turn up at the front and two steel runners or blades fitted to the bottom of the kuffens. For safety there is finger guards fitted to each kuffen on the sides (constructed from wood or metal with plastic inserts). A rein is clearly visible at the front, made from steel wire aid the steering. The blades are set with a slight bow from front to rear fixed at a set angle and are extremely sharp. The track width is not more than 450 mm (for young people up to 400 mm). The width of the entire carriage must not exceed 600 mm. The clearance angle of the runners must not exceed 45 ° in single seat sleds and 40 ° in the doubles and youth sled. The weight is a maximum of 20 kg for the doubles and 14 kg for the single-seat sleds. [5] The single athlete ice racing sled is used in competition such as World Cup and World Championship ice track races. It takes a lot of skill and training to make it navigate ice tracks. They are very exciting to watch. The maximum weight for a singles sled is 14kg. The doubles ice racing sled is very similar to the singles ice racing sled. The main difference is that it is physically a bit larger to allow 2 athletes to sit on it and as such weighs more than a singles sled. The maximum weight for this sled is 20kg. There is quite some still in setting up a race sled. The athletes wear special footwear. The boots provide rigidly and ankle support and are mounted with plate spikes used to stop or slow the sled and driver for corners. The length and number of spikes are freely selectable. Furthermore, protective helmets, racing suits and special gloves which have optional steel spikes on the inner and outer surfaces of the finger parts, to aid in the start when paddling are all used. [6] At the start, the athlete accelerates the sled with paddle strokes the rest is down to gravity and the co efficiency of friction. The sled is controlled by weight transfer – also the use of the reign is important to lift the kuffen on the same side as the direction you want to turn with the opposite hand- with your feet the outer of the other kuffen is pressed and the sled will turn. [7] The start is from an iced ramp, which is provided with two fluted grab bars. At the start point the weight and dimensions of the sled plus the temperature of the rails and the competitors start number is all subject to scrutineering. [6] To race, athletes need a valid license and insurance. [8] Race times are recorded to hundredths of a second and normally over 3 runs with the combined time totaled. [9] If unfortunate to have a crash, the pilot/athlete may continue to record a time and get a placement. Competitions are dependant on the weather conditions and the condition of the ice; which is naturally frozen, hence the name Natural Luge; but zero and below is necessary to construct the ice tracks. In some parts of the world athletes compete in temperature’s of - 25 ° C and below wearing little more than a Lycra suit! At high or extremely low temperatures, the race director is responsible for any decision on changes to the competition based on safety. [10]]

Parallel Luge track similar to a ski run

4. Natural tracks are constructed partly on existing routes; however, competition tracks have been developed on specially created areas with the given terrain taken into consideration when constructing the course. The tracks are lined with wooden boards, plastic walls and or foam mats which competitors must stay within the boundaries of the track. The surface is prepared with packed snow and then water is applied to form a thick ice surface (weather/temperature critical). The tracks must have a minimum width of 3 m and the curves have a minimum radius of seven meters. The usual length of this nature paths are between 800 and 1200 m, it must not exceed on an average gradient of 13% and a maximum gradient of 25%. The natural track must have at least the following elements: • a left turn • right turn • a bend (left and right) • a combination of curves • a straight Shortened tracks on Which international competitions with special permission from the FIL can be discharged, have a length of at least 300 m. were held (City event in Moscow, Junior World Cup Seiseralm) On seeking a shortened distances in the season 2015/16 tentatively Pursuit. Parallel competitions, which are in held in ski resorts (or City events in the future) are run on short tracks which only reach a length of max. 300 m. Kühtai / Tyrol has been used for the opening world cup races in 2014/5. Despite the shorter track the head on racing is filled with explosive action and is exciting to watch. Cooling systems for freezing the tracks are not admitted, only the “web soles” may be stabilized by environmentally friendly chemical additives. [11] The use of temporarily installable cooling systems (eg, cooling mats) for refrigeration of the track (short range or parts thereof) is permitted. Agents or additives, which are used to support the refrigeration of the track base are to be compatible in type, (environmentally friendly). Artificially raised curves are not allowed. More than 50 competition standard natural Luge tracks world wide with runs mainly in Italy, Austria and Germany. Tracks in use, include countries like Russia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, the Czech Republic, Turkey, Croatia, New Zealand, Slovenia, Slovakia, Switzerland and Liechtenstein as well as in Canada and the United States. [12] There are around 1,000 natural tracks for recreational sliders. Meanwhile almost every major ski resort in the central Alps have specially prepared toboggan runs. [Edit | edit source]

5. Organization. Natural Luge is internationally recognised within the International Luge Federation (FIL), sport tobogganing, sledging and tobogganing are part of the ISSU International Sledge Sport Union Represented. In Germany, the tobogganing is the Bobsleigh and Luge Federation for Germany (BSD) in Austria by the Austrian Luge Federation (ORV), in Switzerland by the Swiss Sliding, organized in South Tyrol / Italy from the Winter Sports Federation FISI and in Liechtenstein from Liechtenstein Luge Association. The United Kingdom have the Great Britain Luge Association (GBLA). Participating nations in this sport are from: Italy, Austria, Russia, Switzerland, Germany, USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Great Britain & NI, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzogovina, Romania, Bulgaria , Moldova, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Finland, Norway, Turkey and Sweden. [Edit | edit source]



6. Variants


Wheeled Sled Double Wheeled Seld getting air The sled can be adapted for summer races by fitting wheels similar to that used in, in-line skates. Here, up to 20 roller wheels using bearings attached to steel rails bolted to the sled, instead of the sharp steels used on the ice are fitted which, allow athletes to drive on roads which are closed to ensure safety for all participants. For the braking into the corners the boots have parts of tires glued to the sole to aid the loads due to friction under high speed breaking. Gloves are essential with solid protection for the palm of the hand. A homologated helmet is a must both full and half face are used. (optional padding as required) The race tracks have lengths of about 800 - 1200 m with an average gradient of 10 - 12% on. Braking points and curves are protected by barriers, usually foam padding or bails of hay. The speed limits are up to 90 km / h. Both single and doubles compete with classes from juniors to seniors. For many winter sports enthusiasts this is a good training giving technical, physical and mental preparation for the Natural Track Luge. Furthermore, for non-alpine countries this is the only practical way to train and promote this sport. The FIL has in recent years run a tourbus to promote the sport of Natural Luge using the wheeled format. In Europe competition in the Natural track of luge is growing with an international Cup - a race series of the Austrian Luge Federation (ORV) founded in the 90s - are also the Racing Grand Prix discharged from Europe, ISSU ISSU European and World Cup. Promoting, the role Luge/sledding in Austria, Italy, Germany, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, Great Britain, Sweden, Poland, Brazil, Switzerland, Turkey and the Czech Republic. [15] Great Britain hold two wheeled events per year with the option to enter the street luge and UK gravity races over 5 rounds.

Hornschlitten is a variant of Natural Luge sleds the horn sled has three people: a pilot (also handlebars or called helmsman), a brakeman and a “backpack” (also called runners). The Horn sleigh was originally a working device of mountain farmers, to transported hay into the valley, or transport harvested timber to the yard. Today’s sleigh is a portable sports equipment and provided with a bar brake. For over a decade, the European Cup and the roof of the FIL (International Luge Federation) was discharged and every 2 years was a European champion crowned. The races are mostly held in the Alpine countries Austria, Italy, Germany, Slovenia and Switzerland. Since 1995 European Championships have been held, and since 2000 there has been a European Cup. [13] The Horn sleigh sport has changed the umbrella organization in the 2013/2014 season. New the European Cup races and European Championships are under the umbrella of international Sledge Sport Union (ISSU) executed. [14]

7. Recognition of Natural Luge as an Olympic discipline The International Luge Federation has since the 1970s made numerous attempts to gain recognition of Natural Luge as an Olympic discipline, but failed to get the sport in the program of the Olympic Games. [4] Until the Second World War there was many toboggan races, partly also the major international events took place on natural tracks. These are routes that are based on existing roads and are therefore adapted to the natural conditions. In the 1950s, the tobogganing was increasingly shifted to designated tracks were characteristics were developed raised curves and rounded side walls. This track type dominated from then and almost all international competitions but was know as artificial (what you now see on what’s commonly known as the bobsleighs track)- the Olympic debut in 1964 - took place on these man-made routes. The infrastructure of Natural Luge failed to compete against it in that time, several teams disbanded and nature paths were not used. To counteract this, the natural track Commission, who exclusively took care of the sport from 1967, and n the FIL in 1966 backed international racing on natural track, and in 1970 the first European Championships were held. At these competitions many athletes regularly took part because the discipline was especially popular in the Alpine countries. [38] Building on this success, the Austrian FIL President Bert Isatitsch who asked in March 1974 that Natural Luge be used as a demonstration sport for the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck. Isatitsch stated in his application:

the consolidation of natural track luge at the international level, where real amateurs in the sense Olympians competed for gold, silver and bronze! Behind this desire there are more than 50,000 amateur athletes from 26 countries, which through the years sport exercise the Olympic spirit “BERT Isatitsch, March 4, 1974 [39] 

This request was not allowed by the IOC as with all Winter Games since 1968, the host country were not permitted to hold demonstration sports. Also another request Isatitschs put forward to the Program Commission of the IOC in October 1976 to give the natural track luge sport Olympic status was unsuccessful [40] Nevertheless, persecuted members of the natural track Commission’s continue to lobby for Olympic status. The 1977 elected Chairman of the Commission, Hans Wanner; proclaimed at the beginning of his tenure that one of its main objectives, was to allow natural track lugers participating in the winter Olympics, as part of the 1982 World Cup. The topic returned one more time back in the media, as the assets from Poland, the Soviet Union, East Germany and other Eastern Bloc countries did not participate in the big event. The accusation that these countries would boycott the World Cup to sabotage the natural track luge sport itself, was denied. Nevertheless, the Polish FIL Vice President Lucjan Świderski spoke against the inclusion of sport in the Olympic program because it is not as popular as it once was. Also Isatitsch saw the weather depending sport as reason why natural Luge would not be accepted as an Olympic sport. [41] Nevertheless, in the following years, further efforts to accommodate the sport of natural luge in the program of the Olympic Games. For the 1984 and 1992 Winter Olympics the FIL failed again with an attempt to stage Natural Luge as a demonstration event. [42] In 1998, a renewed request to the IOC asked to take up the natural track luge in 2006 in the Olympic program. [43] After great efforts the FIL and the Association of International Olympic winter Sports Federations (AIOWF) and the host of the Games in Turin were in favor of recognizing the sport. IOC vice president Thomas Bach at a press conference in January 2001, agreed the FIL was on the right path, but a few points need to be improved. However, the loss of power of some nations to tip the scales was too large and there were also questions to the infrastructure that would have to be resolved. [44] In October 2001, FIL President Josef Fendt announced that his organization would continue to make great efforts to get Natural Luge recognizing and onto the program of the Olympic Games in Turin 2006.[45] In August 2002, the IOC, dented any project to include Natural Luge, but said they were open to further talks. [46] Failure again in 2005, the IOC was again against launching Natural Luge after it had previously given the FIL hope after intensive talks with the organizers of the 2010 winter Games in Vancouver who had expressed interest in an expansion of the program. [47] Natural luge was also a topic of discussion, to take part in the winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012 in Innsbruck; [48] this goal was not and has not been achieved [49]. External links Weblinks

• Website der FIL • Naturbahnrodeln auf der Website des ÖRV • Naturbahnrodeln auf der Website des BSD References and Bibliography 1. Hochspringen ↑ Der Rodelsport auf Naturbahn: Sportliche Entwicklung. Österreichischer Rodelverband (PDF, 118 kB) 2. ↑ Hochspringen nach: a b Rodel-Geschichte. Website der Rodelsektion des SC Riessersee. 3. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 4) 4. Hochspringen ↑ Harald Steyrer, Herbert Wurzer, Egon Th einer: 50 Jahre FIL 1957 – 2007. Die Historie des Internationalen Rennrodelverbandes in drei Bänden. Band I, Egoth Verlag, Wien 2007, ISBN 978-3-902480-46-0, S. 186, 187, 200, 221, 269, 320, 351, 369. 5. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 12–13) 6. ↑ Hochspringen nach: a b Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 15) 7. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 12) 8. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 3) 9. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 24) 10. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 23) 11. Hochspringen ↑ Internationale Rennrodelordnung Naturbahn (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, S. 30) 12. Hochspringen ↑ Übersicht der Naturbahnen auf der Website der FIL 13. Hochspringen ↑ Entstehung des Hornschlittensports in Österreich Österreichischer Rodelverband (PDF, 53kb) 14. Hochspringen ↑ Basis-Info Rollenrodeln Österreichischer Rodelverband 1. High Jump ↑ The sledding on natural track: Sports Development. Austrian Luge Association (PDF, 118 kB) 2. ↑ jump up to: a b luge history. Website toboggan section of SC Riessersee. 3. High jump ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (Version 2008) (PDF, 314 kB, p.4) 4. Jumping Up ↑ Harald Steyr, Herbert Wurzer, Egon Theiner: 50 Years FIL 1957 - 2007. The history of the International Luge Federation in three volumes. Volume I, Egoth Verlag, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-902480-46-0, S. 186, 187, 200, 221, 269, 320, 351, 369th 5. High jump ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, pp 12-13) 6. ↑ jump up to: a b International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.15) 7. High Jumping ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.12) 8. Jumping Up ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.3) 9. High Jump ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.24) 10. High jump ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.23) 11. High jump ↑ International Luge Regulations Natural Track (2008 version) (PDF, 314 kB, p.30) 12. High jump ↑ Overview of nature paths on the site of the FIL 13. High jump ↑ emergence of horn sled sport in Austria Austrian Luge Association (PDF, 53kb) 14. High jump ↑ Basic information role sledding Austrian Luge Association Natural track luge

Sled are very flexible to help in steering and use razor sharp blades. The seat is designed to hold the athlete in place while braking and steering on the rough ice. www.fil-luge.org